2.4 - Create the Roof and Attic
"Design a House with AutoCad Architecture 2018"
Published - Copyright© 2019 by Pantelis Skourtis
2.4.4 - Create the Walls of the Dormer
Design the Attic
The attic is part of the roof floor and is consisted of the space (BmgD1B) which is created under the roof as shown in Fig.220.127.116.11.
To create the attic:
- You will expand the interior wall (BD1) until the roof as shown in (Fig. 18.104.22.168).
- You will create a Dormer on the roof, for the lighting and ventilation of the attic.
Expand the wall up to the roof
To expand the wall (BD1) until the roof:
- Select the wall of the attic (BD1).
- In the Ribbon > on the Modify panel > Roof / Floor line > Modify Roof Line (Fig.22.214.171.124).
- At the prompt: RoofLine [Offset / Project to polyline / Generate polyline / Auto project / Reset]: right click the mouse and select Auto project.
- At the prompt Select objects: select the roof you have drawn and press ENTER, and then press Esc to complete the command.
- To display the shape of the interior wall (BD1) that has been extended to the roof, you will need to temporarily hide the roof.
To do this:
- Select the roof, click the icon (bubble) Isolate Objects in the lower right side of the tool bar (Fig.126.96.36.199), and select isolate object. The roof will be hidden and you will see the walls without the roof (Fig. 188.8.131.52).
- To reappear the roof, press again the button Isolate Objects and select End Object Isolation.
Create the Dormer on the Roof
To create the roof dormer, as shown in Fig.2.4.4.x, you have first to convert the roof from Roof to Slab Roof, to be able to open the hole that you need for the dormer.
Convert the Roof to Roof Slab
To do this:
- Select the roof, on the Ribbon>on Modify panel > select Convert (Fig.184.108.40.206). In the task window "Convert to Roof Slabs" that appears:
- For Roof Slab Style: Select the Standard
- Then uncheck the box next to "Erase Layout Geometry", and click OK (Fig. 220.127.116.11).
- For a better view of roof slabs set the height of Global Cut Plane height (Fig.18.104.22.168) to 2.500.
The roof of the will be converted to Roof slab, consisting of four separated Roof slabs, as shown in Fig.22.214.171.124.
Create the Dormer
The dormer consists of four walls (have to be designed and the back wall) and its roof that will be a Roof Slab and will be a Gable roof. You will also add a window in the front wall of the dormer.
Design the walls of the dormer
You will draw the walls of the dormer, according to the position and dimensions shown in Fig.2.4.4.x. The walls will start from the floor of the attic, will have a thickness of 0.200 (m), and height 1.800 (m).
- Draw on the roof plan the polyline (abcda) with the shape, position and dimensions as shown in Fig.126.96.36.199
The rectangular (abcd) formed by the polyline, has as dimensions 1.150 x 2.200, and will be the outline of the hole to be opened in the roof slab, for the creation of the dormer.
Using polyline (abcda) as a guide, design the four walls that define the space of the dormer.
- Open the Design Tool Palette, right click on the tool Wall and choose Apply Tool Properties to > Linework (Fig.188.8.131.52).
- At the prompt Select lines, arcs, circles, or polylines to convert into walls: click on the “Dormer hole polyline” (Fig.184.108.40.206), and press ENTER to accept the selection.
- At the prompt: Erase layout geometry: select Yes ( or type y), and press ENTER. The polyline (abcda) replaced by the walls, which are the walls of the dormer (Fig. 220.127.116.11). These walls will have as thickness 0.200 and height 1.800, you will define these values in the properties palette of the walls.
To define the properties of these walls:
- Select the walls and on the Properties palette, define for Width = 0.200, and for Base height = 1.800.
- Scroll down on the left side of the panel to find the field Justify. Press it, and then press the arrow on the left, and choose left (Fig. 18.104.22.168).
The walls (ab, bc, cd, da) of the dormer, have been designed as shown in (Fig.22.214.171.124).
Design the roof of the dormer.
You will first design a single slope roof using as guide the walls of the dormer. The roof will have as thickness 0.200 m, and as plate height 1.800 m.
- Open the Design Tool Palette, right click on the tool Roof and select Apply Tool Properties to > Line work and Walls (Fig.2.4.4.x).
- Alternatively, you can select the tool Roof on Ribbon > Home tab > Build panel > Roof Slab drop-down > Roof (Fig.x.x.x.).
- At the prompt Select object: select on the attic plan the walls of the dormer (Fig.126.96.36.199), and press ENTER.
- At the prompt Erase layout geometry? [Yes/No] : press ENTER and then Esc. The roof on the walls (ab, bc, cd, da) of the attic have been designed (Fig.188.8.131.52).
C.- Define the roof properties
Select the roof, right click and select Properties. The Properties palette will open and display the properties of the selected roof (Fig.2.4.13). With the roof selected look in the properties palette and:
- Set the thickness of the roof to 0.200.
- For Edge cut select Plump, as shown in Fig. 2.4.13.
- For the Shape field choose Single slope.
- Set the Overhang to 0.200, it is the projection of the roof of the outer wall.
- The Plate height, which is the height at which placed the base of the roof (Fig. 2.4.19), set at 1.800, which is also the height of the walls.
- Set Slope = 25.00 and pres Esc. The dormer roof has been created as you can see in Fig.2.4.20.
D.- Convert the roof to gable roof
The roof you designed is a single slope roof, for better appearance and adapt it to the dormer, you will convert this roof to a Gable roof (Fig.2.4.22).
• Using the View Cube, display the attic plan in Top View, select the dormer roof, notice the points handle (grips) which will appear in the plan of the dormer roof.
• Click with the mouse to point (1), it will turn red, and drag it to the point (3) (Fig.2.4.21). In the same way drag the point (2) in to point (4) and press ENTER. The roof became a Gable roof (Fig.2.4.22).
Fig. 2.4.21: Convert to Gable roof
Fig. 2.4.22: Attic – the Gable roof
If you have a problem converting the single slope roof to a gable roof, you can currently hide the walls that pass through the points (3) and (4), convert the roof and then unhide them.
• For a better appearance of the roof plan view and to avoid problems during the conversion of the dormer roof to a gable one, set on the cut plane the cut height = 400, Display Below Range = -3000 and Display Above Range = 3000 (Fig.2.1.31.)
E.- Convert Roof to Roof Slab
To create the dormer on the attic roof, as shown in Fig.2.4.26, you have first to convert the dormer roof from Roof to Slab Roof, to be able the opening of a hole on the roof slab. To do this:
• Select the dormer roof, on the Ribbon > on the Modify panel > select Convert (Fig.2.4.15).
• In the task pane "Roof Slab Style" that will appear: For Roof Slab Style: Select the Standard
• Then check the box next to "Erase Layout Geometry", click OK and press ENTER twice (Fig. 2.4.16). The dormer roof will be converted into Roof slab, consisting of two separate Roof slabs.
F.- Add the dormer on the attic roof
The dormer consisting of the perimeter walls and two sloped slabs of the roof has been created. Now you will add this dormer on the front slab of the roof.
• Ensure that the walls and the slabs of the roof dormer, penetrating the slab of the roof, and are in the correct position.
• Select the slab of the roof, where you add the dormer, and on the Ribbon >Dormer panel >select Add (Fig.2.4.23).
• Select all the objects that form the dormer (walls and slabs of roof dormer), and press ENTER.
Fig. 2.4.23: Add a Dormer tool
• At the prompt Slice the walls with the roof slab [Yes / No] : press ENTER, to cut off parts of the walls, which is under the slab of the floor and press Esc.
Fig. 2.4 24 Attic - create the dormer
• Delete the wall (dc) in the back side of the dormer. The creation of the dormer completed as shown in Fig.2.4.24. In the internal view of the attic (Fig.2.4.25), you will notice that it has opened a hole in the roof slab and removed the walls beneath the dormer roof.
Fig. 2.4.25: Attic - interior view
What is needed now, is to extend the walls of the attic to the roof, and then create a window size 800 x 400, at the top of the wall.
G.- Extension of the walls up to the dormer roof
To extend the front wall (ab) of the dormer to the roof:
• Select the wall (ab) of the dormer.
• In the Ribbon > on the Modify panel > select Roof / Floor line >Modify Roof Line (Fig.2.4.13).
• At the prompt: RoofLine [Offset / Project to polyline / Generate polyline / Auto project / Reset]: right click the mouse and select Auto project.
• At the prompt Select objects: select the two roof slabs of roof dormer, press ENTER, and then press Esc to complete the command. Repeat the same procedure for the side walls of the dormer (ad) and (bc). The walls were extended until the roof dormer.
H.- Create a window on the dormer
You will create a projected - window on the front wall of the dormer. This window will have a width of 800 mm, height 400 mm and head height 1500 mm.
• Choose from the Windows tool palette (Fig. 2.21) the window style Awning. In the 'Properties Palette' that will appear (Fig.2.3.17), you will see the style properties of the window you just selected. In the Properties palette edit the properties as follows:
• In category Dimensions, enter Width = 800, Height = 400, Measure to = Outside of frame, Swing angle = 45, Sill height = 1100. In Category Location select position = Center. With selected the style Awning window,
• At the prompt Select Wall, grid assembly or ENTER : select the front wall (ab).
• At the prompt Insert point or [….]: Select a point at the middle of the Wall (ab) and press ENTER. The window has been designed and the dormer will have the form you see in Fig.2.4.26.
Fig. 2.4 26: Roof with the dormer
Save this drawing under the name h21155_roof in the folder customDrawings\roof you have created, its full path will be: C:\ACA\my_projects\house21_155\customDrawings\roof\h21155_roof. You will use this drawing in chapter 5, to create the construct drawings of the project. By now you have designed the floor plans of the building, ie basement floor plan, ground floor plan, First floor plan and roof floor plan that includes and the attic. The next stage is to create presentation drawings - view drawings - including the 3d view of the building. You could create the 3d view plan, using the plans you designed as external references, and place them at various levels. From this 3d view plan you will create the sections and the elevations of the building. In the designing of this building, you will not to use this method. AutoCad Architecture, gives you the method and tools to organize your projects and to relate the plans to each other. AutoCad Architecture provides automatic features that help you to manage, the representation and costruction of the building. You will follow this method to manage the drawings of this project in Chapter 4. “Drawing Management”. Back to the top of chapter Back to the top
For the outline of the first floor plan, for project house21-190, you will draw a polyline in the shape and dimensions as shown in Fig.184.108.40.206, and under the name 'First floor Outline'.
Open the drawing file you created in the earlier lesson 2.2.1 - groundFloor - Create the Outline, with the name h21190_groundFloor_outline.dwg, and you have saved it in path C:/ACA/myProjects/house21-190/h21190_groundFloor_outline.dwg.
You will use this drawing as the base to draw the first floor outline as shown in Fig.220.127.116.11.
If you wish, you can download this file of the h21190_groundFloor_outline.zip drawing by clicking here: downloads dwg,
on the page where you will be directed, on category Custom Drawings/ground floor locate the file h21190_groundFloor_outline.zip, click on the file name to download it, then unzip and save it under the name h21190_firstFloor_outline.dwg, and open it with AutoCAD Architecture.
Now you will draw the new polyline (AA1ghA), that is the outline of the first floor plan, for your project house21-190, as shown in Fig.18.104.22.168.
On the Application Status bar , make sure that ORTHOMODE is turned ON, display Drawing Grid is turned OFF (its color has to be grey), Snap mode is turned OFF(its color has to be grey), and the Dynamic Input is turned ON.
Now you have to create a new layer, with Name: A-FirstFloor-Outline, Color: 22, and to make it current. To do this:
- Click Home tab ►Layers panel ►click Layer Properties icon
- Right-click on the 'Layer Properties Manager' window that will open ►and from the drop-down menu that will appear select New Layer ►for the Name type A-FirstFloor-Outline , for Color select 22, and make it Current.
- Close the Layer Properties Manager dialog box.
You will start drawing the polyline (AA1ghA).
To do this you will first draw the Construct line (AA1):
- Draw the Construct line, that passes over the line (ab) (Fig.22.214.171.124).
Construction lines (also known as xlines) are temporary linework entities that can be used as references when creating and positioning other objects or linework. Construction lines are either circles or straight lines that extend to infinity in both directions. They do not change the total area of the drawing and have no effect on zooming or viewports.
In most cases, you can to draw construction lines based on segments of existing objects, but you can also draw them by specifying any two points in the drawing area, without regard to existing objects or linework.
To use Construction Lines tool:
- Click Home tab ► Draw panel ► Line drop-down icon (hover on ►) ► select Construction Line tool
Draw the Construction lines:
- Select (ab) as linework to create xline (ab), set as offset = 0.00, and press Enter.
- Offset (Fig.126.96.36.199) the Construct line (ab), define as distance 4.15, and select a point near the line (AA1) to set the side to be executed the offset command.
To draw the polyline (AA1ghA), as shown in Fig. 188.8.131.52:
- Click Home tab > Draw panel > click Line (hover on) and from the drop-down menu select Polyline.
- To Specify on the screen the Start point (A) of the polyline, select as next points (A1), (g), (h), after the drawing of point (h), right-click on the screen and select 'close from the drop-down menu that will open', to close polyline (AA1ghA).
The outline of the First floor plan is done, it is polyline (AA1ghA), and you will use it at the next lesson to create the exterior walls.
You will type the letters A, A1, at the corners of polyline, as shown in Fig.184.108.40.206. To do this:
- Make layer A-Notes as Current, to do this, on Ribbon > Layers panel > Layer tab and on the drop-down menu that will open select A-Notes.
- On Ribbon, click Annotate tab > on Text panel, make sure that text style Standard is current, and text height is 0.27.
- On Ribbon, Click Annotate tab > on Text panel > click the arrow on Multiline Text icon (hover on) , from the drop-down menu, select Single Line, and type the letters A, A1, at the corners of polyline, and type the word Terrace in the area (abA1Aa) and (cdefc), as shown in Fig.220.127.116.11..
Draw the Dimensions (aA), (Ah), (bA1), and (A1c) on the First floorOutline drawing, as shown in Fig.18.104.22.168.
- Set layer A-Dim as the current Layer.
- Draw the dimension (ah), to do this:
Click Annotate tab > Dimensions panel and make sure that current style is Standard > click on the Linear Dimension icon (hover on) .
- To Specify on the screen the first point (a)of dimension (aA), select corner (a) of the polyline.
- To Specify the second point (A) of dimension (aA), select corner (A) of the polyline.
- To Specify the Dimension location line, select with your mouse a point upward of line (aA) second point (A) of dimension (aA).
- The same way create the rest dimensions for First floor outline.
Customize Dimension Style
Once you have drawn the dimension, if you notice that its components like text, arrow etc. are very large or small. To fix it, you have to set as Current the dimension style 'Standard' that you use, and modify it if necessary..
To do this,
- Make dimension style Standard as the Current dimension style.
- Select a dimension, with style Standard that you want to edit, right-click on it and on the drop-down menu select 'Edit Dimension Style.
- The dialog box 'Dimension Style Manager' will open, select style Standard, and click tab Set Current.
- With style Standard selected, click on Modify tab to open the dialog box 'Override Current Style: Standard, select on the top tab 'Text' to open the corresponding dialog box, as shown in Fig.22.214.171.124. Here set the text height= 0.15, go back, select tab 'Symbols and Arrows' tab and set Arrow Size= 0.18, go back, select tab 'Primary Units' tab and set Precision= 0.000, go back, select tab 'Fit' tab and on category 'scale for dimension features', set Use overall scale of = 1.000.
- Click OK, and on Dimension Style Manager click Close.
From now on, the 'Standard' Dimension Style, on the drawing, has the new values you just inserted.
Create a leader
A leader object is a line with an arrowhead at one end and a multiline text object or block at the other.
The landing and leader line are associated with the multiline text object or block, so when the landing is relocated, the content and leader line move along with it.
To Create a leader:
- On Ribbon, set layer A-Notes as current, and on the Application Status bar set the ORTHOMODE to Off.
- Click Home tab ► Annotation panel ► select Multileader icon
- Command prompt says: MLEADER Specify arrowhead location or [Leader Landing first, Content first, Options] <Options> : Select a point on line (AA1), as shown in Fig.126.96.36.199,
- Command prompt says: MLEADER Specify leader landing : Select a point at the right of line (AA1), and type First floor Outline.
- Click somewhere on your screen to dismiss the command MLEADER, and turn-on the ORTHOMODE . The result is as shown in Fig.188.8.131.52.
Hatch fills an enclosed area or selected objects with a hatch pattern, solid fill, or gradient fill.
To draw hatch within the areas (abA1Aa) and (cdefc), as shown in Fig.184.108.40.206:
- On Ribbon, create a new layer, with Name: A-Pattern, Color: 41, and make it current.
- Click Home tab ►on panel Draw ► select Hatch icon , the Hatch Creation ribbon will appear (Fig.220.127.116.11)
- On panel Pattern, click on the arrow to open the drop-down window with the available patterns, and select the pattern NET.
- On panel Properties, for Angle type 45, and for scale set 0.1.
- At the prompt: HATCH pick internal point or [ ]: Pick a point within area (abA1Aa) and a point within area(cdefc), and then press Enter.
- The result is as shown in Fig.18.104.22.168.
Save your drawing within folder 'house21-190', with the name: h21190_firstFloor_outline. It's full path will be: C://ACA/MyProjects/house21-190/h21190_firstFloor_outline.
At the next lesson, you will start designing, the exterior walls of the basement, according to the layout and dimensions of the polyline 'First floor outline' as shown in Fig 22.214.171.124.
During the drawing of the Basement Outline, you gave to point (a) coordinates (20,20) ( X=20, Y=20), and keep in mind that you will use these coordinate values for the same point in all floor plans and site plan you are going to design.
Within the folder house21-190/customDwg you created before, add a new folder named downloads, to have assembled the files of drawings that you will download from the location of the site: downloads, and use these drawings, if you need these, during the design of the project.
The full path of the folder will be: C:\ACA\myPprojects\house21-190\customDwg\downloads.